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Minggu, 23 Januari 2011

MATERI KULIAH BAHASA INGGRIS UMUM PGSD



Mata Kuliah: Bahasa Inggris Umum PGSD


A.   Latar Belakang
Bahasa Inggris merupakan bahasa internasional, sehingga perlu dikuasai oleh semua orang, terutama bagi para calon guru.
Bahan Ajar ini disusun untuk dapat digunakan sebagai salah satu sumber informasi dari pelaksanaan Mata Kuliah Bahasa Inggris Umum PGSD. Bahan Ajar ini juga dilengkapi dengan CD Audio yang berisi rekaman percakapan dari penutur asli (native speaker), agar para mahasiswa dapat mempelajari bagaimana cara pengucapan (pronounciation) dan aksen yang benar.
Mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris Umum PGSD disusun untuk meningkatkan keterampilan mahasiswa Jurusan PGSD Fakultas Ilmu Pendidikan dalam menyimak (listening), berbicara (speaking), membaca (reading) dan menulis (writing).

B.   Tujuan Pembelajaran
Mahasiswa diharapkan mampu menguasai empat keterampilan bahasa meliputi Speaking, Listening, Reading dan Writing.

C.   Tema
My Study

D.   Standar Kompetensi & Kompetensi Dasar
Standar Kompetensi :  Mahasiswa mampu menguasai empat keterampilan bahasa meliputi Speaking, Listening, Reading dan Writing.
Kompetensi Dasar ;
Listening :        Mahasiswa mampu menyimak makna lagu dan menentukan sentence pattern.
Speaking :        Mahasiswa mampu mengungkapkan pertanyaan, jawaban, ide, tanggapan dll, dalam percakapan.
Reading :          Mahasiswa mampu menentukan kalimat inti dan kalimat penunjang dalam text bacaan, menemukan kosa-kata yang baru dan sulit dipahami.
Vocabulary :     Mahasiswa mampu menguasai kosa-kata yang sulit dalam suatu text bacaan
Grammar :        Mahasiswa mampu menggunakan aturan bentuk lampau dalam kalimat.
Writing :            Mahasiswa mampu menuliskan tentang pengalaman belajar mereka.


E.   Indikator
Mahasiswa mampu menyimak makna lagu dan menentukan sentence pattern.
Speaking :        Mahasiswa mampu mengungkapkan pertanyaan, jawaban, ide, tanggapan dll, dalam percakapan.
Reading :          Mahasiswa mampu menentukan kalimat inti dan kalimat penunjang dalam text bacaan, menemukan kosa-kata yang baru dan sulit dipahami.
Vocabulary :     Mahasiswa mampu menguasai kosa-kata yang sulit dalam suatu text bacaan
Grammar :        Mahasiswa mampu menggunakan aturan bentuk lampau dalam kalimat.
Writing :            Mahasiswa mampu menuliskan tentang pengalaman belajar mereka.


F.    Langkah-Langkah
Listening : 1. Mahasiswa diberi pengarahan oleh guru dalam melaksanakan kegiatan menyimak
2.    Mahasiswa menyimak lagu
3.    Mahasiswa melaksanakan kegiatan yang diarahkan oleh dosen

Speaking  :    1.      Mahasiswa dibentuk dalam kelompok berpasangan
2.        Mahasiswa mendengarkan dialog yang dibawakan oleh native speaker
3.        Mahasiswa memperagakan dialog tersebut

Reading :       1.      Mahasiswa membaca teks bacaan
2.        Mahasiswa menjawab pertanyaan yang menyangkut pemahaman isi text bacaan

Vocabulary :     Mahasiswa mempelajari kosa-kata yang terdapat dalam daftar kosa-kata

Grammar : Mahasiswa mempelajari tatabahasa melalui model pembelajaran inkuiri

Writing :            Mahasiswa belajar menulis juga melalui proses pembelajaran inkuiri







G.   Materi Ajar
  1. Listening (Menyimak)
WE WILL NOT GO DOWN (Song for Gaza)
(Composed by Michael Heart)
Copyright 2009



A blinding flash of white light
Lit up the sky over Gaza tonight
People running for cover
Not knowing whether they’re dead or alive

They came with their tanks and their planes
With ravaging fiery flames
And nothing remains
Just a voice rising up in the smoky haze

We will not go down
In the night, without a fight
You can burn up our mosques and our homes and our schools
But our spirit will never die
We will not go down
In Gaza tonight

Women and children alike
Murdered and massacred night after night
While the so-called leaders of countries afar
Debated on who’s wrong or right

But their powerless words were in vain
And the bombs fell down like acid rain
But through the tears and the blood and the pain
You can still hear that voice through the smoky haze

We will not go down
In the night, without a fight
You can burn up our mosques and our homes and our schools
But our spirit will never die
We will not go down
In Gaza tonight

Thanks to Michael Heart


  1. Speaking (Berbicara)
My Study
A : Hi there, I’m Nitha. I saw you in TOEFL test yesterday
B : Oh, you mean the day before yesterday?
A : Yeah, you probably didn’t see me. I was late, so I was sitting by the door.
B : Well, I’m Nina. I’m sorry, did you say your name was “Nita”?
A : Actually, it’s Nitha with a “h”.
B : Sorry Nitha. I didn’t get a lot of sleep last night. Well, where do you study?
A : I study near hear, at Jakarta State University and where do you study?
B : What a surprise! I’m study at Jakarta State University too.
A : I heard there is TOEFL test also at our campus. Why do you take extra test at this time instead?
B :Yeah, But I really want to have more practice. I think it is not enough practicing the test only once.
A : You’re right. We need more practice. Well, OK then, see you next week.
B : See You

  1. Reading (Membaca)
The Legend of Nyai Brintik
One day, the Kingdom of Demak held a washing ceremony of all kerises of the kingdom. It was an important event. It was held annually. A lot of people were flooded there to see the ceremony. They wanted to see a variety of supernatural kerises. The sacred ceremony was usually led by Sunan Kalijaga. Unfortunately, because he had another duty from the kingdom, the job of a washing ceremony of all kerises was led by Sunan Muria.
Meanwhile, on a hill not far from the Kingdom of Demak, there was a very beautiful woman. Her name was Nyai Bintik. People called Nyai Bintik because she had curled hair. Beside she was beautiful, she also had supernatural power. She got her supernatural from a hermit named Patih Danurejo from the Kingdom of Wengker. Nyai Berintik was one of the persons who wanted to see the washing ceremony of all kerises of the Kingdom of Demak. She was in the middle of the crowd.
The ceremony of washing the kerises began. Two of the kerises that would be washed were Kyai Sengkelat and Kyai Pasupati. Most of the people who wanted to get a blessing from the two kerises were fighting to get the splash of water used in the ceremony of washing the kerises.
Suddenly, when the two kerises were taken out from the wooden box, Nyai Brintik grabbed them swiftly from Sunan Muria and flew away. Sunan. All of the people there were surprised at that event. Nyai Brintik could not be stopped. She disappeared like being swallowed by the earth.
The news about the loss of the two kerises shook the Kingdom of Demak. The King of Demak took an action quickly by sending his special team to catch her. The result was good. One of his men managed to find out her hiding place. It was on a high hill with big trees and wild animals.
It was late at night, Nyai Brintik woke up and saw the two kerises. She said to her self that she would be the powerful woman in the region. She could do anything with the two kerises.
Feeling hot inside the hiding place, Nyai Barntik went out. She looked at the sky and the stars. Then she got into the hiding place. Suddenly, she saw a man standing in front of the door.
“Who are you?”, said Nyai Brintik.
Then the man told her that he was sent by the King od Demak to take the two kerises from Nyai Bintik. Hearing that, Nyai Brintik got angry and attached him. Unfortunately, she missed her attack. The man could avoid her strike. Frustrated, she got out her keris and stabbed it to the man. She missed again but the man ran away. His body felt too hot of her keris. Then he fell down a few meters before Nyai Bintik.
Suddenly, there was a mysterious man appearing before Nyai Bintik. He told her to return the two kerises.
“Nyai Bintik, the two kerises are not yours. If you want to be safe, you must return them soon. It’s of no use having the two kerises. Please give them to me”, said the mysterious man.

Hearing such advice, Nyai Bintik got angry and attached him at once. Unfortunately, she missed her attack. Nyai Bintik used up all of her strength, but the man kept calm and managed to avoid Nyai Brintik’s attack. At last, Nyai Bintik became tired and hopeless after fighting for many hours. She fell down and kneeled to that man. She lost her strength. She also wondered to know who exactly the man was.
“Nyai Bintik, you should know. I’m Sunan Kalijaga”, the man said calmly.
Then Nyai Bintik was aware that there was still a man whose supernatural power was above her. She did not feel arrogant again. She did not oppress the others.
“Here you are, Kanjeng Sunan”, said Nyai Brintik. She gave the two kerises to Sunan Kalijaga. The two kerises were taken to the Kingdom of Demak.
The King of Demak had a special meeting to welcome the return of the two kerises. It was attended by all ministers, regents and also all Sunans.
“Thank you, Kanjeng Sunan Kalijaga”, said the King. The two kerises had returned to the palace. The King asked all of the audience to stay for a while in the palace to discuss about the future of Demak.
Since that event, Nyai Brintik became one of Sunan Kalijaga’s students. She was smart, brilliant and loyal to the Kingdom of Demak. Besides, she always used her supernatural power to help the others.
A few years later, Nyai Brintik passed away and she was buried in Mount Brintik in Semarang. Her cemetery is often visited by a lot of people up to now.




  1. Vocabulary (Kosa-Kata)
annually: setiap tahun              hermit: pertapa
appearing: nampaknya            hopeless: putus asa
aware of: sadar                           in the middle of: ditengah
buried: dimakamkan                 job: pekerjaan
cemetery: makam                      kneeled: berlutut
curled: keriting                            led by: dipimpin oleh
disappeared: lenyap                  mass: masa
event: peristiwa                          not far from: tak jauh dari
flew away: terbang jauh           oppress: menekan
flooded: dibanjiri                        passed away: wafat, meninggal
grabbed: meraih, merebut        Quickly: dengan cepat
regents: bupati                           swallowed by: ditelan oleh
sacred: suci                                 swiftly: dengan cepat
shook: mengguncang              took an action: mengambil tindakan
stabbed: menyabet                    up to now: sampai sekarang
strike: memukul, menyerang    wooden box: kotak kayu

  1. Grammar (Tata Bahasa)
Simple Past Tense
Simple past tense digunakan untuk menunjukkan suatu kejadian, peristiwa, atau keadaan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau.

I bought a house last year
Mrs. Yumna taught me CURMAT last week
I went to Gorontalo last week
Columbus discovered America in 1492

Simple past tense menggunakan keterangan waktu lampau. Keterangan waktu sering digunakan dalam simple past tense sebagai berikut.
Yesterday                              Last                       Ago
Yesterday morning                       Last night            Three days ago
Yesterday afternoon                     Last week            Five weeks ago
Yesterday evening                       Last month          Seven months ago
Yesterday night                             Last year              Two years ago
                                                         Last Sunday       a/one month ago
                                                         Last Winter          a/one week ago
                                                         Last Autumn       a/one year ago
                                                         Last March
                                                         Last July

Kata kerja beraturan (regular verb) dibentuk dengan menambahkan akhiran ‘d/ed’ pada kata kerja pertama (infinitive). Jika kata kerja berakhiran huruf ‘d’ atau ‘t’, akhiran ‘ed’ diucapkan ‘id’.

I wanted to see the Personal Manager yesterday morning
He decided to return to Bali
John played tennis with his friends last Sunday

Kata kerja yang tidak beraturan (irregular verb) tidak dibentuk dengan menambahkan akhiran ‘d/ed’ pada kata kerja. Kata kerja tidak beraturan mempunyai bentuk tersendiri.

My father sold this house six weeks ago
I sent the letter three days ago
My elder brother got a job last week

Kalimat Tanya (introgative statement) dibentuk dengan menempatkan kata bantu ’did’ didepan kalimat tanya, kata bantu did berarti ’apakah’ dan kata kerjanya kembali kedalam bentuk pertama (infinitive).
Did he buy this camera last week?
Did you receive the letter last week?
Did you come here to pick me up?
Kalimat menyangkal (negative statement) dibentuk dengan menambahkan ’not’ sesudah ’did’ berarti apakah dan kata kerjanya kembali kedalam bentuk pertama (infinitive).

We didn’t meet him at the station yesterday
She didn’t call me from her house last night.
Simple past tense juga digunakan untuk menanyakan waktu terjadinya suatu kejadian atau peristiwa.

When did he buy this new house?
When did he come to Jakarta?
When did your elder sister get married?

Past Continuous Tense
Past continuous tense digunakan untuk menunjukkan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada suatu saat tertentu diwaktu lampau.

We were watching TV at 09.00 o’clock last night.
I was doing my homework at 2 p.m. yesterday.
They were playing football at 5 p.m. yesterday

Past continuous tense digunakan untuk menunjukkan suatu kejadian atau peritiwa yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu lampau, kemudian kejadianatau peritiwa lainnya menyusul.

When father came home last night, my little sister was watching TV
Sefti was waiting for a bus when I met him yesterday afternoon
Ghinaa was typing a letter when I wanted  to see her

Past continuouse tense juga digunakan untuk menunjukkan dua kejadian atau peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung pada saat yang sama diwaktu lampau.

The children were watching TV while father was reading a book.
Ghinaa was cleaning the house while her mother was cooking.

Kalimat Tanya (interrogative statement) dibentuk dengan menempatkan ‘was/were’ didepan kalimat. Dalam kalimat Tanya, ‘was/were’ berarti apakah.

Was he studying English at 05.00 o’clock yesterday afternoon?
Were you reading a novel when she came to your house last night.

Kalimat menyangkal (negative statement) dibentuk dengan menambahkan ‘not’ sesudah ‘was/were’ (was not/wasn’t, were not/weren’t) dan ditempatkan sesudah subjek kalimat.

We weren’t waiting for a bus at 5 yesterday afternoon.
I wasn’t doing my homework when mother called me last night
They weren’t having dinner when I came last night
We weren’t having a meeting at 11 o’clock a.m. yesterday.





Past Perfect Tense
Past perfect tense digunakan untuk menunjukkan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa yang telah terjadi pada waktu lampau, kemudian kejadian atau perisitiwa lainnya menyusul

I had got a job when I decided to marry Jane
We had settled our second payment when she contacted me yesterday afternoon.
His father passed away after John had got a job

Past perfect tense digunakan dalam indirect speech jika reporting verb dalam simple past tense

Direct        : Robert said, “I have read the novel twice”
Indirect     : Robert said that he had read the novel twice.

Direct        : My brother said, “I had returned the book the library.”
Indirect     : My brother said that he had returned the book to the library.

Direct        : Merry said, “I have cashew the cheques.”
Indirect     : Merry said that she had cashed the cheques.

Kalimat Tanya (interrogative statement) dibentuk dengan menempatkan “had” didepan kalimat.

Had she posted the letter when I met you at the post office this morning?
Had she returned the book when I wanted to borrow it yesterday?
Had Jack got a job when he married your little sister?

Past perfect dalam bentuk kalimat Tanya (interrogative) bisa digunakan untuk menunjukkan suatu past unreal dalam conditional type III.

If we had known you that you were there, we would have come to your house.
If you had studied more seriously, you would have been able to speak English well
If I had found the right buyer, I would have sold the car

  1. Writing (Menulis)
Sentence Pattern: Noun + Verb
Illustration (Uraian)

Clouds gathered. The sun dimmed. The wind blew. Dogs ran and growled. Birds cried. Lightning flashed, Thunder sounded, The earth shook and trembled. Trees fell. A hurricane had begun.

Paragraf diatas terdiri atas kalimat-kalimat yangmenggunakan pola paling sederhana, yaitu kata benda + kata kerja (noun  verb). Perhatikan unsure-unsur pola kalimat pada contoh berikut:

Sentence Pattern: Noun + Verb
NOUN PHRASE
VERB PHRASE
Noun
Verb
Clouds
The sun
The Wind
Dogs
Birds
Lightning
Thunder
The earth
Trees
A hurricane
gathered
dimmed
blew
ran and growled
cried
flashed
sounded
shook and trembled
fell
had begun


Discussion (diskusi)
Compounding (Penggabungan)
Kata benda (Subyek), kata kerja atau predikat dan pola kalimat lain dapat digabungkan.
Pelajarilah contoh-contoh berikut:
NOUN PHRASE
VERB PHRASE
Kata Benda + Kata Benda
Kata kerja + Kata Kerja
The doctor and his assistants
She and her friends
Neither Ali nor his friends
Neither they nor he
write and read
dance and sing
read or write
reads or studies

Diatas merupakan contoh-contoh kalimat yang subyek dan predikatnya digabungkan.  Bagian subyek kalimat disebut frasa nomina (noun phrase), sedangkan bagian kalimat yang menyatakan apa yang dilakukan subyek disebut frasa verba (verba phrase) atau predikat. Frasa nomina dapat terdiri atas satu atau lebih kata benda, ditambah modifier dan penghubung. Pada sebagian pola kalimat, frasa nomina juga berisi komplemen dan obyek.

Penyesuaian (agreement)
Penyesuaian Subyek dan Predikat
Kalimat-kalimat berikut semuanya menggunakan kata kerja waktu sekarang (present tense).

Mr. Brown teaches
He is lecturing
His students are listening
They don’t study
He doesn’t approve

Subyek tunggal pada orang ketiga, seperti he dan Mr. Brown yang diikuti oleh do, bentuknya ditambah –s sehingga menjadi does, baik sebagai kata kerja sekarang ataupun sebagai kata Bantu kata kerja.

Penyesuaian dan Penggabungan Subyek
Subyek yang digabungkan sering membuat bingung dalam menyesuaikan subyek dan predikatnya.
1.    Kalau bagian-bagian subyek yang digabungkan dihubungkan dengan and, baik tunggal maupun jamak, kata kerja yang digunakan harus berbentuk jamak.

They boys and girls are playing
Rudi and Siska approve

2.    Jika bagian-bagian subjek yang digabungkan tunggal dan dihubungkan dengan penghubung seperti or, nor, either...or, neither ...nor, not only...but also kata kerja yang digunakan harus berbentuk tunggal.

Either Susan or her friend is expected
Neither Budi nor Wibi studies

3.    Jika bagian-bagian subyek yang digabungkan dihubungkan oleh or, nor, either...or, neither..nor, not only..but also dan berbeda dalam jumlah orangnya, bagian yang paling dekat dengan kata kerja yang menentukan bentuk kata kerjanya.

Neither Ucok nor his brothers help
Not only the students but also Mrs. Black is waiting

Penyesuaian dan Kata Benda yang Artinya majemuk
Kadang-kadang kata benda yang bentuknya tunggal dapat digunakan dalam pengertian jamak.

The crowd were waving their hands and shouting
The committee were arguing

Tetapi biasanya kata-kata benda seperti class (kelas), group (kelompok), committee (panitia), jury (yuri) disebut kata benda majemuk dan dianggap berbentuk tunggal sehingga kata kerjanya ditambah –s.

The committee is meeting
The jury has been dismissed

Bentuk kata kerja dan kata Bantu yang bentuknya tidak berubah dalam penyesuaian
Kalimat-kalimat berikut berkata kerja lampau:

The books came
The book came
I came
They worked
Susan worked
We worked
Bentuk lampau kata kerja tidak berubah apabila orang atau jumlah subyek berubah. Peratuan ini juga berlaku untuk modal. Pada pasangan kalimat berikut, kata Bantu tidak berubah tanpa melihat orang atau jumlah subyeknya.

Mr. brown will lecture at eight o’clock
The students will listen
Mrs. Black and her children must leave early
I must go to the post office
What can I do for you?
Can I help you?

H.   Penilaian
Penilaian dilaksanakan secara penilaian proses. Adapun yang termasuk dalam penilaian adalah:
1.  Partisipasi : Yang termasuk dalam partisipasi adalah kehadiran dan keaktifan mahasiswa didalam kelas
2.    Tugas          :     Tugas individu dan kelompok
3.    Ujian Tengah Semester
4.    Ujian Akhir Semester


I.      Cara Penilaian
Penilaian didasarkan pada penilaian proses dengan menggunakan penilaian berskala 4 dengan konterfensi nilai A, B, C, D.
85 – 100% = 4 = A
75 -  84%   = 3 = B
65 -  74%   = 2 = C
                     <  64%  = 1 =  D
    

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